Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Many historians consider figures such as Joan of Arc, Margaret Thatcher, and Mother Teresa to be charismatic leaders. Today, protesters can use cell phones and the Internet to disseminate information and plans to masses of protesters in a rapid and efficient manner. Such traditional authority is important to keep the child safe. Thus, government power does not necessarily equate to absolute power. Some leaders, like Mohandas Gandhi for instance, can be considered charismatic and legal-rational authority figures. Experts and the U.S. public alike are weighing the need for fighting terrorism in its current form of the Islamic State and the bigger issue of helping to restore peace in the Middle East. Similarly, members of dominant racial groups or upper-class families also win respect more readily. In other words, power is necessary but not sufficient for authority. Power is informal and is based upon individual understanding. In this section, we will discuss the government and the political system in terms of their impact on individuals and larger social systems. In order to help us understand and discuss our political system, we must first define government. Similarly, a leader or government can start out exemplifying one type of authority and gradually evolve or change into another type. For the most part, political scientists focus on studying how power is distributed in different types of political systems. Economist and sociologist Max Weber realized this when he examined individual action as it relates to authority, as well as large-scale structures of authority and how they relate to a society’s economy. For instance, a person who sees the flashing red and blue lights of a police car in their rearview mirror usually pulls to the side of the road without hesitation. Consequently, power is necessary for authority, but it is possible to have power without authority. 2014. Greta Thunberg, a teenager from Sweden, has been making waves around the world, giving powerful and moving speeches about climate change. They found they had power because they were able to exercise their will over their own leaders. Both men organized nonviolent protests to combat corruption and injustice and succeeded in inspiring major reform. Regardless, most contexts provide a traditional structure of authority, even among the household unit. In most societies, for instance, men are more likely to be privileged than women and thus are more likely to hold roles of authority. Office cost is reduced as it does not emphasizes on more specialists, and more departmental machines and equipment. On a smaller scale, you might encounter rational-legal authority in the workplace via the standards set forth in the employee handbook, which provides a different type of authority than that of your boss. Max Weber, one of the key figures in sociology, realized this when he examined individual action as it relates to authority, as well as large-scale structures of authority and how they relate to a society’s economy. “How Egyptian and Tunisian Youth Hijacked the Arab Spring.” Technology Review, September/October. 2014. (Photo courtesy of cjb22/flickr). He is pictured here with fascist Benito Mussolini of Italy. 3. Some leaders, like Mohandas Gandhi for instance, can be considered charismatic and legal-rational authority figures. As part of her official duties, the police officer then has the power to issue a speeding ticket if the driver was driving too fast. “Debate: Does U.S. Military Intervention in the Middle East help or Hurt?” October 7. Traditional authority can be intertwined with race, class, and gender. Power affects more than personal relationships; it shapes larger dynamics like social groups, professional organizations, and governments. (Photo courtesy of U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). Young people and students were among the most ardent supporters of democratic reform in the recent Arab Spring. A dominant nation, for instance, will often use its clout to influence or support other governments or to seize control of other nation states. Pittacus (c. 640–568 B.C.E.) The political organization of ancient Egypt typified such a system: when the royal household decreed that a pyramid be built, every Egyptian was forced to work toward its construction. In other words, power is necessary but not sufficient for authority. Followers accept the power of charismatic authority because they are drawn to the leader’s personal qualities. As you’ll learn in this section, Max Weber studied power and authority, differentiating between the two concepts and formulating a system for classifying types of authority. Power is an entity’s or individual’s ability to control or direct others, while authority is influence that is predicated on perceived legitimacy. People adhere to traditional authority because they are invested in the past and feel obligated to perpetuate it. Reduced cost—The standardised procedure and method helps in considerably reduction of office cost. In short, if a society approves of the exercise of power in a particular way, then that power is also legitimate authority. Essays on Freedom and Power. One example of the former is the authoritarian use of power. http://openstaxcollege.org/l/sociology_Arab_Spring, http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/02/world/meast/isis-american-journalist-sotloff/, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/04/us-mideast-crisis-henning-behading-idUSKCN0HS1XX20141004, http://www.npr.org/2014/10/07/353294026/debate-does-u-s-military-intervention-in-the-middle-east-help-or-hurt, http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/23/world/meast/syria-isis-airstrikes-explainer/, http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/23/world/meast/syria-airstrikes-countries-involved/, http://www.technologyreview.com/web/38379/, http://cnx.org/contents/02040312-72c8-441e-a685-20e9333f3e1d/Introduction_to_Sociology_2e, Authority resides in the office, not the person, Patriarchy (traditional positions of authority). In most societies, for instance, men are more likely to be privileged than women and thus are more likely to hold roles of authority. Translated by A. M. Henderson and T. Parsons. 2. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was one of the most powerful and destructive dictators in modern history. A more modern form of traditional authority is patrimonialism, which is traditional domination facilitated by an administration and military that are purely personal instruments of the master (Eisenberg 1998). a type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the master power the ability to exercise one’s will over others rational-legal authority power that is legitimized by rules, regulations, and laws traditional authority power legitimized on the basis of long-standing customs Berkeley: University of California Press. 2014. Its historical forms are dictatorship and absolute monarchy. 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