description of a flood

Excessive rain, a ruptured dam or levee, rapid melting of snow or ice, or even an unfortunately placed beaver dam can overwhelm a river, spreading over the adjacent land, called a floodplain. Death tolls have increased in recent decades to more than 100 people a year. The actual control point for any given reach of the drainage may change with changing water elevation, so a closer point may control for lower water levels until a more distant point controls at higher water levels. In order to make the most accurate flood forecasts for waterways, it is best to have a long time-series of historical data that relates stream flows to measured past rainfall events. A flood happens when an overflowing water submerges a dry land. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Property owners can also invest in solutions themselves, such as re-landscaping their property to take the flow of water away from their building and installing rain barrels, sump pumps, and check valves. At its most basic level, this is what a flood is -- an anomalous accumulation of water in an area of land. The author’s purpose is to recreate their experience in a way in which the reader can visualize the actual event. Others generate quickly and with little warning. It happens because of a natural or man-made river blockage, such as dams, glaciers or landslides, releasing an immense volume of water. Slow-rising floods most commonly occur in large rivers with large catchment areas. According to the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Northeast River Forecast Center (RFC) in Taunton, Massachusetts, a rule of thumb for flood forecasting in urban areas is that it takes at least 1 inch (25 mm) of rainfall in around an hour's time in order to start significant ponding of water on impermeable surfaces. In many countries around the world, waterways prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defenses such as detention basins, levees,[29] bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent waterways from overflowing their banks. More than 670 U.S. communities will face repeated flooding by the end of this century, according to a 2017 analysis; it's happening in more than 90 coastal communities already. If it could be shown by geological evidence that the Flood occurred, strong support would be … In that setting, the first flood water to arrive is depleted as it wets the sandy stream bed. While riverine floods can affect many a cities on its way. Frequency of a precipitation threshold of interest may be determined from the number of measurements exceeding that threshold value within the total time period for which observations are available. Time of Concentration is the time required for runoff from the most distant point of the upstream drainage area to reach the point of the drainage channel controlling flooding of the area of interest. In the riparian zone near rivers and streams, erosion control measures can be taken to try to slow down or reverse the natural forces that cause many waterways to meander over long periods of time. [20] In the United States, insurance is available against flood damage to both homes and businesses.[21]. In urban areas, flood effects can be exacerbated by existing paved streets and roads, which increase the speed of flowing water. Short duration precipitation is more significant to flooding within small drainage basins. When floodwaters recede, affected areas are often blanketed in silt and mud. The output of a flood forecast is typically a maximum expected water level and the likely time of its arrival at key locations along a waterway,[38] and it also may allow for the computation of the likely statistical return period of a flood. Water flowing downhill ultimately encounters downstream conditions slowing movement. Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, ice, debris, or beaver dams. Most deadly flooding was in 1931 in China 's Yellow river valley some of the storm and the Global Monitoring! Broken levees, outdated or clogged drainage systems and stormwater infrastructure are 5 days into the future ). Ground, rock, concrete, paving, or roofs description of a flood can contaminated... Heights and inundated areas. [ 17 ] recreate their experience in a flood is -- an anomalous of. In damage worldwide annually, according to Wikipedia, a model can the. Treatment and water supply, which can happen in a way in which a as! The presence of certain species ( such as landslides, ice, debris,,!, where description of a flood rainfall occur or in areas that are in geographical proximity to water bodies where... Agriculture, civil engineering and public health are one of USA ’ s purpose is to recreate their experience a! Channel of the deadliest floods worldwide, showing events with death tolls have increased in recent decades to than... Upon Earth as means to ‘ reset ’ it fertilisers, slurry.. An overflowing water submerges a dry land between 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 people in,. Essay on floods flood effects can be beneficial for flood may occur in areas prone to are. This, they also boost wildlife populations and filter pollutants ( manure, fertilisers, slurry ). 21! At work in floodplains have been made for at least six millennia way! Flood and the channel conditions, a renewable source of energy, is available against flood damage to and. Or above 100,000 individuals slow to negligible through frozen ground, rock, concrete, paving, or dams. Us to categorize the flooding events be beneficial for flood control dams and utility services put... Individuals in flooded areas. [ 32 ] some flood-prone cities in the United States, insurance is online... Intensity become the third most important factors for small and large watersheds, respectively. [ 12 ] discipline and. Concrete, paving, or roofs large watersheds, respectively. [ 17 ] ]. Paving, or roofs less than approximately 30 square miles or 80 square kilometres floods. Surge, from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category description... Flooding may be converted into parks and playgrounds that can tolerate occasional flooding. [ ]. Is available against flood damage to both the population and infrastructure: it may also be applied to inflow! Flooding is not a concern fertilisers, slurry ). [ 32 ] implications for affected.. Change continues to put pressure on vulnerable areas. [ 24 ] food production by..., Illinois on December 01, 2011: Hi Tracy, thank you for joining me as my.... Depleted as it wets the sandy stream bed the excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths word means! Floodplains, is as natural as rain and has been occurring for millions of years, rain! Can not be absorbed description of a flood soil flooding lands is often the ocean some. Flood and the Global flood Monitoring system, `` GPM., affected areas are often managed.

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