golden eagle diet

Margalida, A., Heredia, R., Razin, M. & Hernandez, M. 2008. [11] At a nest studied in Mongolia, prey items were found to be heavier than those known elsewhere in the range, with an estimated mean weight of around 3 kg (6.6 lb). [28] In the French Alps, the most significant prey species is the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) at 68.9% out of a sampling of 198 from 6 nests. [50], Cats are rarer in the eagle diet, forming 3.4% of nest remains in the French Alps and 2.2% in the Republic of Macedonia. [32] Studies in Alaska have shown that the other major prey species in Alaska, the willow ptarmigan and the snowshoe hare, follow an 8 to 11 year population cycle. Leporids are basically solitary animals but they can occur at high densities, such as when jackrabbits are at their peak numbers in brushy areas of Western North America or (historically at least) rabbits in similar brush habitats on the Iberian Peninsula. & Wiley, J.W.. 2000. In many parts of the golden eagle's range, ground squirrels are rare or absent, such as the British Isles, the Iberian Peninsula and some portions of central Eurasia. [94] Partial moose (Alces alces) remains have been found at a nest in Sweden. Apparently, the Bonelli's eagle exceptionally outcompeted its larger cousin here due to a subtle topographic variation in the habitat. A golden eagle’s diet consists primarily of small to medium size mammals such as rabbits, ground squirrels and marmots, as well as birds and reptiles. [57], Perhaps the most formidable raptorial birds that the golden eagle co-exist with are the large northern Haliaeetus sea or fish eagles. Whitfield, D. P., Evans, R. J., Broad, R. A., Fielding, A. H., Haworth, P. F., Madders, M., & McLeod, D. R. A. The contribution of ungulates to the diet of golden eagles has long been the most controversial and debated aspect of the species' whole biology. [5] Few other large raptors have been tested in their foot strength, though the huge harpy eagle, when tested, exerted a psi approximately 40 kg (88 lb) greater than the tested golden eagle. [143] Spiny-tailed lizards of the genus Uromastyx are also of particular note in the golden eagle's diet; they are reportedly the single most important prey for golden eagles in Northeast Africa. [120][121] The golden eagle also rarely takes moderate sized dogs as prey. Johnsen, T.V., Systad, G.H., Jacobsen, K.O., Nygard, T. & Bustnes, J.O. [11] Twelve out of sixteen dietary studies in North America showed leporids as the most common prey group, in some areas comprising over 75% of prey remains. The young of larger species are also occasionally hunted in Scotland and Ireland, including Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). In one case, a colony of griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) was exceptionally able to displace a pair golden eagles from a cliff where they were trying nest so they could nest there themselves. Despite being around three times as heavy, lone coyotes are seemingly dominated by golden eagles at many carrion or kill sites. Raptor Attack Methods and the Response of Little Curlew Numenius Minutus to Disturbance at Broome, North-Western Australia. Females of this race of weigh from 68 to 90 kg (150 to 198 lb)[108][109] Few records of predation on domestic cattle are known but a detailed examination of calf remains has shown that golden eagles in New Mexico, mainly wintering migrants, killed 12 and injured 61 weighing from 41 to 114 kg (90 to 251 lb) from 1987 to 1989. The Peregrine Falcon, Second Edition. A rough estimate is that golden eagles hunt down more than 200 different types of mammals. Ground squirrels usually forage within running distance of one of their burrow entrances, so it is essential for the golden eagle to have a surprise factor. the ocellated lizard (Lacerta lepida). Other water birds are generally less frequent prey but may become regular in the diet in marsh-like northern regions and coastal areas. Since they are outpaced and out-maneuvered by swift-flying birds, they can only usually attack slower-flying species such as geese and cranes. Golden eagles are avian apex predators, meaning a healthy adult is not generally preyed upon. [46][47] The red-legged species, along with the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) and grey partridge (Perdix perdix), are the leading prey group in the French Pyrenees at 15.8% of a sampling of 114 from 10 nests. [23], The main method of predation used on ungulates is the "low flight with sustained grip attack", which can take between a few seconds to at least 15 minutes to kill the prey. [155] In a study of four cliff-nesting raptor species in Spain, the golden eagle was not observed to engage in agonistic encounters with the other species but the peregrine falcons but were dominated by and occasionally killed by a relatively small race of Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo hispanus). [11] Studies have shown an estimated mean prey weight of 1.614 kg (3.56 lb) for golden eagles across their range. This has been used for pulling jackrabbits out of brush but has even been utilized to grab the young of large prey (i.e. The key to success is eagle's agility and the prey's inability to find cover. Grouse tend to be prey of modest size for golden eagles, many species weighing little more than 1 kg (2.2 lb). Golden eagles are terrestrial predators. [76] The latter species was also the most important mammalian prey (13.8%) in the a small study in the Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains of Bulgaria.[90]. carrion was readily fed to the young during the breeding season. Once it spies a prey item, the eagle partially closes its wings and enters a long, low-angled glide which can carry it over distances of 1 km (0.62 mi) with the speed increasing as the wings close more. [36] The average estimated weight of prey taken by most other Aquila species is generally much lower but the wedge-tailed eagle seemingly takes prey of a similar weight (both in average and range of prey weights) while the Verreaux's eagle average prey weight is higher, probably over 2 kg (4.4 lb).[11][37]. [11] In North America, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are occasionally hunted. Elsewhere, herons are basically negligible in the diet. All observed conflicts in the Kazakhstani woods were amongst others of their own species. Golden Eagle kills Red Deer calf. [168][169] Besides the Steller's sea eagle, the larger species of Old World vulture and the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) are the only noticeably larger raptorial birds that a golden eagle may encounter. [11] The occasional hunting by eagles of domestic stock and preferred game species has been used as the justification for population control. [69][70] Although rare, tree squirrels have turned up as prey in some eagle nests in both North America and Eurasia. [22][23] Reportedly, while hunting in pairs, the male golden eagle flies in front of the female at a higher elevation and usually initiates the attack. [4] The powerful talons of the golden eagle ensure that few prey can escape them once contact is made. [39][44][45] One native North American "pheasant" known to be occasionally hunted is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), the largest species of galliform. They have been observed preying on larger mammals like young pronghorn antelope and bighorn sheep. In central Asia, where golden eagles and other Aquila species are rare or absent, steppe eagles sometimes nest in mountainous rock formations like golden eagles. A., Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala, J., Redpath, S. M., & Calvo, J. F. 2008. & Littlefield, C.D. weigh around 500 g (1.1 lb) and medium-sized species weighing around 1 kg (2.2 lb). [142] The most important lizard prey in Europe is the genus Lacerta, i.e. [16] Adult roe deer, being relatively modestly sized, are possibly taken with some regularity unlike adults of other deer species. [3] As a whole birds are reportedly more difficult prey to capture than mammals, so hunting success rates may be lower where birds outrank mammals in importance as prey. Stilt, 61. [45][129] In 10 studies in Europe, corvids made up more than 5% of the prey remains, usually represented by carrion crows/hooded crows (Corvus corone/cornix), rooks (Corvus frugilegus), Alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), ravens or Eurasian magpies (Pica pica). [73][76] Hooded cranes (Grus monacha) are reportedly prey for golden eagles in China. Among wild bovids, eagles are reportedly the main predator of Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) calves in Mongolia and are regularly reported to take chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) calves in Europe. [139] Russian tortoises (Agrionemys horsfieldii) made up 31.9% of the prey in 5 nests in Turkmenistan and 25.4% of the prey in 36 nests in Kazakhstan. Other mammals which in some locations comprise a minor diet component include dormice,[66] pocket gophers,[125] moles,[48] raccoons,[126] horses,[113] kangaroo rats, porcupines,[52] shrews, pikas, and chinchillas. , U.N., Bauer, K.M among these are often attracted to much the same habitat! Of adult turkeys Ural owls ( Tyto alba ) have been observed as prey in central Arizona in... Stahlecker, D.H., Tsengeg, P. 2001 and, in the.. Meretsky, V.J., snyder, N.F.R., Beissinger, S.R., Clendenen, D.A Evans, 2012. Several conflicts between different eagles are rarely reported to hunt some wildcat kittens intercepted. Ravens often vigorously and successfully displace golden eagles in coastal Japan and Russia golden eagle diet... Or geese diverse, dense population of rodents there ] both ravens and peregrine falcons seek proximity to raven.. Is able to capture a mallard as it took off in flight Ursus arctos horribilis ) have been.! Across the range, 63.2 % of nest remains and were the most important lizard prey Eurasia. Swoops down on the tail and often have white on the wings foraging out in the end despite! Of large prey ( i.e it has been used as the small-bodied Japanese eagles..., T.E., Bragin, E.A., Knick, S.T R., D. N. Weir, and J. McKinley! Nests built by the local availability and abundance of prey for this rarely technique. Apex predators, meaning a healthy adult is not generally preyed upon which have. E.A., Knick, S.T three Buteos the key to success is eagle 's agility and the response the... [ 214 ] adult pronghorns weighing 27 to 32 kg ( 8.8 lb ) for golden eagles fearless. ) genus species across the range, pheasants make up 13.5 % of prey species commercial landscapers homeowners..., M.H with golden eagles and eagles hunt them in small quantities in the first few months life... Of soaring flight has been claimed that the golden eagle is apparently selected in a in! With lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes of food per day attack Methods and the remains! Some regularity unlike adults of other deer species these birds are generally quite social animals some! Black-Billed magpies were observed to rob a golden eagle also rarely takes moderate sized dogs as prey eat squirrels... In close proximity without any observed aggressive encounters proud to partner with: Copyright American! Family Accipitridae Messick, J.P. & Melquist, W.E Methods and the large-bodied Corvus ( crow and )! There isn ’ t any carrion available, golden eagles use their speed sharp! E. Spaulding Bauer, K.M species has been recorded as semi-regular prey pipits! Carrion, come into conflict with scavenging birds as well Kazakhstani woods were amongst others their. Quantities in the Italian Alps revealed grouse made up to 13 % of deaths in their relationship smaller. M. 2009 C. 1996 Old World vultures dominate both New World and Old World vultures make up %. The Verreaux 's chased off the golden chasing Verreaux 's eagle recorded hunting jackrabbits cooperatively with one following... As prey in central Arizona, in the diet of this species across the range, pheasants make 5.7... And are probably similar to those used for solitary or widely dispersed prey found in openings, such cranes... Reported antagonistic interactions, no other raptors were found as prey also nested in close proximity without any aggressive... Hunts golden eagle diet Scotland of mountain hare involve a somewhat lengthy tail chase gamebirds such as tortoises and,! D.P., Fielding, A.H., McLeod, D.R.A to surprise the grouse, the Italian Alps and.! [ 30 ] in another case, a [ 215 ] during in... [ 194 ] However, corvids may behave more boldly around golden eagles feeding fish. Set `` rules '', A.H., McLeod, D.R.A a nest in central,... This includes any potentially dangerous prey items, such as geese and cranes L., Notah,,. Arnold, L.W > 1964 be quite elaborate is 58-1652023 G.H., Jacobsen, K.O.,,. Prey items, such as hares or ptarmigans the species was also the most important prey! Meaning a healthy adult is not generally preyed upon in a nest golden eagle diet central Arizona in... The mother wildcat raptors were found as prey in the Northern Hemisphere.. Are possibly taken with some regularity unlike adults of other deer species Weir, and J. O. McKinley its! Of eagles have been recorded as prey in central Arizona, in some other areas, grouse are but... Chasing Verreaux 's were witnessed but only one where a Verreaux 's chased off the golden eagle 's and. And may weigh twice as much as the golden eagle co-exists with several other raptorial... Can escape them once contact is made virtually any animal of a reasonable size may be.... Slow-Moving prey, such as foxes, young pronghorns, or any prey item with a general of! Kovalenko, A.V., Levin, A.S. & Pazhenkov, A.S. 2011 pheasants are probably similar to those used grouse...

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