It is used ten times in John, including famous statements such as "I am the light of the world." Of course, this phrase is used most often in relation to casting people into the "outer darkness" for example in Matthew 8:12, Matthew 22:13, and Matthew 25:30. Similarly, in Matthew 5:16, Christ tells people to let their light shine before men to see their good works and to give glory to their Father. Christ only discusses "fire" in the context of a judgment of some type. The Greek word translated in the NT as "fire" is pyr (πυρός. Fire consumes things, destroying them. The overall context overall context for Christ's statement about people being "tossed into a fire" is negative precisely to the same degree being tossed into the darkness. In Greek, none of these words have the same sense of knowledge or virtue that the word "light" has in English. But the ovens Christ describes are different. Standard meaning in Greek of the era is often very different from the Biblical use of words. This also explains Christ opposition to doing good works just to be seen. The following Greek words are all translated as "light" in the Gospels: phos,(φῶς) pheggos (φέγγος), and lychnos (λύχνος). Those accumulations can be worthwhile or worthless leading to reward or the fire. This image is similar to the one evoked by the "Parable of the Weeds", where the weeds are bundled to be burnt, while the wheat the makes the bread is gathered into barns (Matthew 13:30). In our ovens, the fire is on the outside, but the bread is on the inside. We should note that in Greek, "teeth" are a metaphor for pain. Hinnom (the Hebrew word), south of Jerusalem where trash, including diseased animals and human corpses, was burned. The various lights in the sky could only be interpreted in terms of what was understood on earth. The Greeks saw us as walking backwards into the future, seeing what was past, but not what was future. So the Greek word for "fire" is used by Jesus as punishment, while the word for "light" is associated with knowledge, truth, and virtue. In Matthew 13:42 and again in Matthew 13:50, Christ describes how the "weeds" ("false wheat") and "the wicked" are cast into the fire, where there will be "wailing and gnashing teeth." ballo" are favorite words that Christ uses in a lot of different contexts. The overall effect is light-hearted and humorous. Jesus uses all four of these words contrasting their various meaning against each other. This word means "bright" and "shining." Jesus also uses context to define this light as "virtue". However, in Matthew 10:28, he also mentions the "soul", but to understand what that means, we have to look carefully at how Christ defines the Greek concept of psyche, which is discussed extensively in this article. Biblical translation has a tendency to use the most general meaning or poetic meaning rather than the specific meaning indicated by Jesus's choice of words. So this phrase describes pain, even if it is described in a colorful way. Their uses often seem extreme, as in plucking out your eye and tossing it away. It specifically means "torch", but it also means"light," and any type of "lamp." Darkness is not the same as what is "hidden." To understand how serious this punishment is, we should note the behaviors to which is it applied. The "candle" in those two verses is lynchos, which means a "portable light," or "lamp." This "sin offering" was discontinued in Judaism after the loss of the temple, but, for Christ, the accumulations "in the sky" (Matthew 6:19 Do not Lay up treasures for yourselves on earth) that are preserved. This word is also translated as "light" in Jhn 5:35 and Luke 12:35. Of course, like everything on earth, fire combines both good and bad. The first word, phos, is used generically for light. Christ is pretty specific in saying that the part of the human life that is destroyed in the fire is "the body", which he mentions many times. It is used only three times by Jesus in the Gospels. This fact tells you something about the dentistry of the times. Their uses often seem extreme, as in plucking out your eye and tossing it away. The Greek words for "come", "fire" and "on/into" are the same. In Jewish law, Jews could atone for their sins by offering an "atoning sacrifice", where a person's goods are destroyed in a fire to atone for his mistakes. Paul's language here echoes Christ's discussion of foundations in Matthew 7:20, which itself immediately follows his statement that trees not producing good fruit are thrown in the fire, Matthew 7:20. A constant fire was kept burning there for the purpose of cleaning up waste. The description of the suffering, however, is odd: "weeping and gnashing of teeth." The next is looking at a woman as a sex object, where plucking out an eyeball or cutting off a hand is offered as an alternative (Matthew 5:29). "Fire", "hell" and "darkness" are united by the used of the verb translated as "to cast out". The connection between "light" and "truth" is more obvious in the Greek. It is the philosophical truth of understanding what is real, what is really going on beneath the surface. Another form of heavenly light is also hidden within use. There is no form of fire that people can make direct contact with and not feel the pain. The first statement regarding the liability of being "tossed into the fires of the trash heap" is insulting your brother (Matthew 5:22). So "truth" requires "light". Those who study the Bible in English translation must be careful about interpreting references to "light" in Scripture. In Matthew (Matthew 24:29) and Mark (Mar 13:24), it is used to refer to "moonlight" or the lack of it. Christ also references this fact in Matthew 6:30, where he states that the "grasses of the field" are here today and tomorrow "tossed into ovens" (the word is, unsurprisingly ballo). In this context, heavenly light, that is, the light from the sky, is something very different than fire. People want to hide their mistakes and shortcomings. It specifically means "perpetual" or "ageless." This is very close to John 12:46 where Christ says, "I am come a light into the world". Greek frequent uses a word that means "to see, eido (ἴδωσιν), to mean "to know." It is important to note that in Christ's time, "fire" was understood to be the only source of light on earth. For example, in John 3:21, Christ says that people hate the light and love the dark because their works are worthless. And the concept of being hidden covers ideas such as disguises and acting. The most obvious source of the meaning of "light" as knowledge comes from the association of light with sight. The other is an adjective with the same ending -teinos, but with the root of light, phos, photeinos. Paul's verse also echoes Christ's words in Matthew 5:16, "Let your light so shine...", which connects the idea of fire to light. More likely, lynchos refers to an oil lamp in the house, where lampas refers to an oil lamp or torch meant to be carried. The word translated as "everlasting" and "eternal" doesn't quite mean those ideas. Both "ekballo" and "ballo" are favorite words that Christ uses in a lot of different contexts. Darkness is also related to blindness and "blind" is one of the meanings of the adjective form of darkness, skoteinos (σκοτινὸν). Similarly, Jesus also uses the absence of sight, blindness, to mean ignorance as in Matthew 15:14. For Christ, the two most important are baking bread and disposing of trash. This word, as it is with most New Testament words, finds it's origin in the Tanakh. 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