The experimental adsorption data were modelled using several kinetic (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich) and isotherm (Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Dubinin-Radushkevich) models, which suggested that the adsorption of AMX onto AC-GS occurs predominantly by chemisorption showing a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 570.48mgg-1 (pH=4.0; T=25°C), which stands out compared to various adsorbents found in literature. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 25:1508–1520. J Hazard Mater 135:232–241. Here, we review chemical activators used to produce activated carbon. Chem Eng J 168:77–85. BioResources 11:6110–6124. Activation with phosphoric acid is commonly used for lignocellulosic material and at lower temperatures. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.019, Khadhri N, Saad MEK, ben Mosbah M, Moussaoui Y (2019) Batch and continuous column adsorption of indigo carmine onto activated carbon derived from date palm petiole. J Hazard Mater 183:583–589. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 120:450–463. The heat of adsorption was determined by CO2 adsorption, while the morphology was observed by FE-SEM and F-TEM, and chemical compositions of the as-prepared activated carbons were analyzed via elemental analysis, XPS and FT-IR spectra. The reaction induced extraction of the pre-embedded boron from the carbon matrix produced additional pores, which greatly improved the texture properties of the obtained SACs. https://doi.org/10.5714/CL.2012.13.2.061, Zhang D, Yin J, Zhao J et al (2015a) Adsorption and removal of tetracycline from water by petroleum coke-derived highly porous activated carbon. Polish lignite was carbonized at 400°C for 15 min and activated by heating with NaOH (2:1) in Ar at 600°C for 20 mln, washed with aq. Quim Nova 37:804–809. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) have been prepared from liquefied wood (Wliq) by chemical activation with KOH, with a particular focus on the effect of KOH/fiber ratio in term of porous texture and surface chemistry. The activation conditions were chosen based on the optimized parameters reported in the literature. This study investigates the use of activated carbons after pyrolysis of waste potato peels for the removal of cobalt ions from synthetic wastewaters (composed of various Co(II) concentrations in distilled water which adjusted previously at different pH values) without any co-existing ions. J Colloid Interface Sci 433:94–103. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.11.3.6110-6124, Liu Q-S, Zheng T, Li N et al (2010a) Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue. Appl Surf Sci 320:674–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.02.002, Li G, Wang M, Huang J et al (2016a) Preparation of activated carbon from Iris tectorum with different ammonium phosphates activation and removal of nickel from aqueous solution. Reactive Red 2 and 1694.3 mg/g for C.I. Bioresour Technol 116:522–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.10.034, Erdem M, Orhan R, Şahin M, Aydın E (2016) Preparation and characterization of a novel activated carbon from vine shoots by ZnCl2 activation and investigation of its rifampicine removal capability. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 95:21–24. area, fuel mass, and fuel type are studied through a model because they may significantly influence the cell performance by polarizations. Appl Surf Sci 379:331–337. The average pore diameter of the activated carbons was estimated to be 1.51 and 2.91 nm for CO2 and H3PO4 activation respectively. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 104:249–259. Chem Eng Res Des 91:1783–1789. Bioresour Technol 148:542–549. PubMed Google Scholar. Results showed that PPAC exhibited larger surface area (1252m(2)/g) and larger portion of mesoporous, while ALAC was typical of microporous materials. Chem Eng J 175:233–243. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave a good fit, with the intraparticle diffusion being one of the essential rate-controlling steps. Chem Eng J 171:502–509. The production process of activated, or active, carbon exists in two forms. Activated carbon is prepared through chemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activating agent in the temperature range of 300°C-700°C for an activation time of 30minutes in a tubular furnace. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2016.09.013, Article https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.048, Uysal T, Duman G, Onal Y et al (2014) Production of activated carbon and fungicidal oil from peach stone by two-stage process. J Clean Prod 32:204–209. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 67:532–537. The kinetic data showed better fit to the pseudo-first-order model at low MB concentration, and with the increasing of concentration, to the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Chem Eng J 288:778–788. Chem Eng J 217:345–353. Characterization techniques used for the study of surface chemistry of carbons prepared (Boehm and potentiometric titrations, BET analysis, SEM/EDAX, DTG), while the possible adsorption mechanism between carbons and Co2+ was further investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. The BET surface areas of these activated carbons were found to be 1133.25 and 1210.58 m2/g, respectively. Desalination 276:53–59. Environ Chem Lett 11:271–275. The first step is carbonization of the raw material and is performed in an oxygen free environment at temperature of about 700°C (Dileck and Oznuh, 2008). The optimized sample, R-K-700, showed the highest CO2 and phenol uptake of 13.6 wt.% and 167.3 mg/g, respectively, and more importantly, samples with an ordered spherical form and similar adsorption performance to the powdered sample can be easily fabricated, making the current carbons and preparation methodology a great promise for practical applications. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were carried out at the optimum pH (6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.080, Din ATM, Hameed B, Ahmad AL (2009) Batch adsorption of phenol onto physiochemical-activated coconut shell. Chem Eng J 228:263–271. Carbon Lett 16:275–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.02.010, Islam MA, Ahmed M, Khanday W et al (2017) Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal. The surface functional groups are closely associated with the KOH/fiber ratios. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.055, Shamsuddin M, Yusoff N, Sulaiman M (2016) Synthesis and characterization of activated carbon produced from kenaf core fiber using H3PO4 activation. Also, the comparison of the physical mixing method and the impregnation method in activation with alkali metals indicates that the activated carbon obtained through physical mixing had a higher porosity than the activated carbon produced by the impregnation method. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 241:15–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-015-0901-3, Tongpoothorn W, Sriuttha M, Homchan P et al (2011) Preparation of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas fruit shell by simple thermo-chemical activation and characterization of their physico-chemical properties. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wri.2014.06.002, Ahmed MJ, Theydan SK (2012) Physical and chemical characteristics of activated carbon prepared by pyrolysis of chemically treated date stones and its ability to adsorb organics. Activated chemicals react with carbon matrices and liberate gas products to form a porous structure (Molina-Sabio and Rodrıguez-Reinoso 2004). J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 80:166–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.02.032, Yorgun S, Yıldız D, Şimşek YE (2016) Activated carbon from paulownia wood: yields of chemical activation stages. and 1 2 no. J Hazard Mater 164:1316–1324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.07.007, Tay T, Ucar S, Karagöz S (2009) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from waste biomass. Ii ) model gave a good fit, with the intraparticle diffusion being of. 2020 ) Kosheleva RI, Mitropoulos AC, Kyzas GZ ( 2019 ) Biochar-derived heterogeneous for... Experiments was carried out to compare Adsorptive performances of ciprofloxacin under different conditions activation of. Adsorption kinetics data to investigate the adsorption of both the dyes on activated carbons D ( 2014 production..., Pengpanich S, Hunsom M ( 2013 ) Adsorptive desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by sewage sludge-derived carbon. Tounsadi et al more acidic functional group than PPAC for ALAC and 400mg/L for PPAC at °C! 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