The term critical theories refers to theories that critique social injustice from a variety of perspectives, including racism, ethnocentrism, the patriarchy, ableism, and others. In healthy individuals, these stages contribute to creativity, wisdom, and altruism. Social work is sometimes termed as “helping people help themselves;” a social worker facilitates change in the behavior of individuals and communities, both large (e.g., a school) and small (e.g., a family). Because human behavior is complex and the social work profession is broad, numerous theories are utilized for social work practice at the micro-meso-macro levels. Psychodynamic theory was developed by Freud, and it explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces. Given the internal nature of strength, clients are usually the best experts about what types of helping strategies will be effective or ineffective; as such, the social worker in this situation is more of a facilitator. There are many different practice models that influence the way social workers choose to help people meet their goals. PDF | On Jan 1, 2015, Barbra Teater published Social Work Theories | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Psychodynamic theory is informed by ego psychology and focuses on how inner energies interact with external forces to impact emotional development. By focusing on these strengths, clients can grow and overcome difficulties. By offering a conceptual lens of social functioning, these frameworks focus on particular, recognizable features of a situation in order to offer guidance on what might be important considerations. The third primary perspective, the feminist perspective takes into account the role of gender and the historical lack of power experienced by women in society. The environment impacts the actions, beliefs, and choices of the individual. Practice perspectives are a particular way of viewing and thinking about the practice of social work. A theory is a logical system of concepts that helps to explain why something happens in a particular way and to predict outcomes. Direct social services usually address the problems of individuals, helping them enhance their capacity to meet social obligations. It is premised on the idea that an effective system is based on individual needs, rewards, expectations, and attributes of the people … Does the program offer online or hybrid courses for working and non-traditional students. Power is unequally divided in every society, and all societies perpetuate various forms of oppression and injustice through structural inequality—from the wealth gap to racial discrimination. But social change can be achieved through conflict—that is, interrupting periods of stability. Social workers and clients collaborate together and create specific strategies and steps to begin reaching those goals. Solution-focused: The social worker and client first identify the solution—the desired future—then work together to establish the steps that will lead to the solution. This social work theory describes the personality as consisting of the id (responsible for following basic instincts), the superego (attempts to follow rules and behave morally), and the ego (mediates between the id and the ego). Systems theory draws the social worker’s attention to the various systems within which an individual functions—groups, organizations, societies, and so forth—in order to help intervene at multiple stages in an individual’s life. Task-centered: The social worker helps the client break down the problem into achievable tasks, using rehearsals, deadlines, and contracts to maintain drive and motivation. Social work practice models describe how social workers can implement theories. This paper is about application of theory on empirical analysis and social work practice. Rational choice theory is based on the idea that all action is fundamentally rational in character, and people calculate the risks and benefits of any action before making decisions. Problem solving: The social worker helps the client understand the problem, brainstorm possible solutions, pick a solution, try it out, and evaluate effectiveness. Erikson believed everyone must pass through eight stages of development over the life cycle: hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom. Various theories draw from other disciplines, including biology, psychology, and economics, and are related to all aspects of social work, including human development, personality, family systems, and political power. Dominant groups maintain social order through manipulation and control. According to this theory, rather than simply hearing a new concept and applying it, the learning process is made more efficient if the new behavior is modeled as well. Some theories emphasize social and economic justice. It assumes that both conscious and unconscious mental activity motivate human behavior, and that internalized experiences—such as childhood experiences—shape personality development and functioning. The account shall then describe assessment in social work practice contexts and consider how critical social work theories like Marxism, Feminism, Radical Social work and Post Modernism have shaped practice. There are many social work theories that guide social work practice. Psychosocial development theory is an eight-stage theory of identity and psychosocial development articulated by Erik Erikson. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Transpersonal theory proposes additional stages beyond the adult ego. Rather than tell clients what to do, social workers teach clients how to apply a problem solving method so they can develop their own solutions. This social work practice model is commonly used with clients who are expressing suicidal ideation. By patterning an individual’s emotions, these early experiences are central to problems of living throughout an individual’s lifespan. Orienting theories describe and explain behavior, particularly when it comes to how problems develop. In people lacking healthy ego development, experiences can lead to psychosis. So in dealing with problem behavior, social workers who employ this theory focus on changing the reinforcement that perpetuates that behavior. Crisis intervention model is used when someone is dealing with an acute crisis. Various theories draw from other disciplines, including biology, psychology, and economics, and are related to all aspects of social work, including human development, personality, family systems, and political power. General systems theory emphasizes reciprocal relationships between the elements of a system—”a holistic, organized unit of interdependent, transacting, and mutually influencing parts (individuals or collectives and their subunits) within an identifiable (social-ecological) environment” (Siporin, 1975). In short, social work is about empowering people. Social workers who employ a feminist perspective emphasize the need for equality and empowerment of women in our society. But what does social work look like? Narrative: Working off the assumption that as an individual’s life story takes shape, it emphasizes certain elements (either positive or negative) over others, social workers help clients “re-author” their own life by reexamining oft-told stories to get at a more basic truth. Orienting theories also attempt to explain large-scale societal problems such as poverty, mental illness, crime, and racial discrimination. By focusing on understanding the human condition and consideration of cross-cultural elements, systems theory has helped drive social work’s understanding of human behavior in the social environment. Each stage is divided into age ranges from infancy to older adults. A complex endeavor, inciting this shift of others’ perspectives can benefit from the framework of the various theories used in social work practice. By grounding their practice in theory, social workers can better understand his or her own task, orient goal setting, and anticipate outcomes. Based on these theories (and others), these models are step-by-step guides for client sessions, much like a recipe or a blueprint for how to effect change. While theories help explain why a problem is occurring, dozens of social work practice models are used to address the problems themselves. A: 4 years for a bachelor’s degree and up to 2 years for an MSW degree. 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