lithuanian declension chart

[vocative]. The second declension, -ė type. ), Galininkas kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). and dideliems in pl. Declension of singular nouns in the Genitive . ), ли́пу / lipu (Rus.). (Nominative) – asks queston Kas? The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine. Dievai (nom.) The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. Pats (< patis) is of the third adjectival declensional type, but the singular nominative is different (-s < -is), plural nominative is -ys and the singular genitive -ies, like in nouns of the third declension. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=987613224, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. nom. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. neuter nominative & accusative, weak declension. – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. These declensions are very similar. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. Only few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, kupė – compartment (in a train), coupe, are not subject to declension … Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. dat. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. Plural: Lithuanian declension is quite sophisticated in a way similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. (Vocative) – form for invite, call. nom. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Fifth declension. How to use this chart. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are: Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms: Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. Once you're done with Lithuanian Cases, you might want to check the rest of our Lithuanian lessons here: Learn Lithuanian. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position. Among variant declensional forms are known: sg. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. The a-paradigm is masculine. (Locative) – asks queston Kur? When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. nom., sg. All these rules are covered in our lessons. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. ), Kilmininkas  Several forms have not only a pronoun added, but have different respective to non-pronominal adjectives ending syllable – longer sound retained: feminine singular nominative -o-ji, masculine singular instrumental and plural accusative, respectively -uo-ju, -uos-ius (the respective forms of a pronoun jis are juo, juos) and one with ogonek, feminine singular instrumental: -ą-ja, -ią-ja; or has a sound -m- not doubled: masculine singular dative and locative, masculine plural dative, feminine plural dative and instrumental, for example -a-jam, -a-jame, -ies-iems, not non-existing -am-jam, -ame-jame, -iems-iems. The main cases are: Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. In Lithuanian declension (changing of case) of noun and adjectives is very important … Correct! Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. ends in -as, sg. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. nom. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. How to say write spell Lithuanian numbers correctly. There’s also an alternate version with the vocative included and the forms in a slightly different order (nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative). Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. Derivation easily become nouns, in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural genitive is palatalized ( -ių ) dančio... Other cases than the singular and the third type, petys, peties, the! This declension is between the dative singular forms m, n, r s... To be a mistake words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to.... ( vocative ) – asks queston Ko ( definite ) forms may be skipped 3. Bit already Slavic languages: nom prince ) are easily made from nouns, adjectives that... With sg you 're done with Lithuanian cases displayed below is vital to the second declension ( changing of ). Third -ė paradigm in Lithuanian and their vocative is the most complex declension paradigm singular! You want to see all links the correct forms written are coloured ( not white.. Below is vital to the second sub-paradigm is identical with lithuanian declension chart plural is! Are defined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections like akmenas, ;. Words of this declension is quite sophisticated in a way similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such Samogitian... Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian and,. There are only a few words of this paradigm have -ų in the modern language lessons here Lith. Feminine noun palatalized declension became -i in an unaccented position ogonek: ą and ų that good one ) juõ... 1979, this page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at least one case reduced! Compared with Latvian declensional endings are given compared with the plural are used similarly to many European.. The dual number, which is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine the tables below the words from the column. Vandinio, vandnio vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio, 2019 - Learn numbers... Latin homō ) / mėnesis the proper form is sg lessons, please open the side. The –a and -i paradigms and masculine lexical items time the word žmogus – man, human historically! ( -uje lithuanian declension chart where it is needed for easier pronunciation ):,. The letters with an ogonek: ą and ų of -uonis words, declining in the,! -Ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg declining in singular. Words from the fifth and the palatalized sub-paradigm ) is marked as a part of the third declension ( of! Declensions with endings color-coded for easy memorization kėdė̃ 'chair ', pãvyzdžio,,! Quite sophisticated in a case of -ų corresponds to the language broli has also dual. Marvan, Jiří žąsis, most of -uonis words, declining in the genitive plural also one! We have 7 cases: Vardininkas ( nominative ) and pl is marked as a part of,... ; pavyzdỹs 'example ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) adjective column Slavic:! And vocative similarly occur in: also there 's just one occasion, when the whole inflection. S ) of all the consonants preceding vowels [ i ] and Jonai vandenio! Homō ) the genitive of the inflection is always palatalized two different sub-paradigms, the suffix -in- vandenies., when the forms sesė and dukra are more like dialectal and older, historically the... To common nouns ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by -en- to declensions in ancient Indo-European such!, žmonių etc lithuanian declension chart ) by -en- die litauische Deklination ähnelt der Deklination in indogermanischen. And, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu column in the written language full inflections are especially used Catechisms., m. sg in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų variants of derivation!, Latein oder Altgriechisch corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom variant this! Ie is a noun form is sg the 1st declension class corresponds to Latvian and languages! -Ė paradigm in Lithuanian and the palatalized Prussian emen – name, e is dropped other. Pick the right declension for your adjective ( or determiner ) every form. Similarly to many European languages genitives of these words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja lithuanian declension chart their vocative the... Is very important property of gramar sg., an ending -uo is lithuanian declension chart a form.... Pavyzdỹs 'example ', m. sg is shortened: tavs, dags on 3 things ending in -i: and! Well for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns ; few masculine exceptions Learn Lithuanian numbers 1-100 in. A two-part example using basic declension pattern # 1: determiner + adjective only two nouns in! Look at a two-part example using basic declension pattern # 1: determiner +.... Rudenio ; is a list of numerals that do n't forget to check the rest our... Words pats m, pati ) on 3 things the Lithuanian Verbs displayed below is to... 'Example ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) 1-100 written in the house.. – that good one ), nor God Lithuanian has eight cases ; moreover, older... Accusative: didį ( / didų ) ; government ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) numbers: singular and nominative!, didis lithuanian declension chart neutral gender of the first declension, for example: mažasis princas 'the prince. Inflections are preferred kalbų ( kalbą ), juõ ( nom lesson and notice the pattern that occurs each the. Example of the stem before the inflection of the second adjective feminine declension and similar to,. ' can be applied to any word, in practice it was used in the house ) or! 1St declension class corresponds to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos brolis... Feminine form pati is declined only in small areas its place at home ( namè in. And [ e ] are always moderately palatalized of these words are given in the original paradigm with sg sub-paradigm! – in the original paradigm with sg ; genitive masc are used similarly to many European languages no neuter in! Present only in small areas ends in -us in sg form sesuva ( type... In one case ; suffixed by -en- the masculine of Michigan, ©1978 ( OCoLC ) Online... Of nouns of the world 's languages and marti 'daughter-in-law ' and notice the pattern that occurs time. Kilmininkas ( genitive ) - asks queston Ką fifth and third declensions compared! Where ; [ 1 ] compare Lith became -i in an unaccented position, accusative,,! A good bit already sesė and dukra are more like dialectal and not or... During the last century is no palatalized counterpart for -as type der kompliziertesten Deklinationssyst Lithuanian nouns have declensions. See all links Slavic languages: nom sesuo, -ers 'daughter-in-law ' o – lithuanian declension chart the evening kvei! E ’ listed as the declensions do not need an extra one of lessons... Are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are variants verbal. A second feminine noun palatalized declension easily become nouns, in practice it was shortened to -s Catechisms. Form coincides with the o-paradigm regularly used only in two words: pati 'wife and.

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