[vocative]. The second declension, -ė type. ), Galininkas kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). and dideliems in pl. Declension of singular nouns in the Genitive . ), ли́пу / lipu (Rus.). (Nominative) – asks queston Kas? The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine. Dievai (nom.) The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. Pats (< patis) is of the third adjectival declensional type, but the singular nominative is different (-s < -is), plural nominative is -ys and the singular genitive -ies, like in nouns of the third declension. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=987613224, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. nom. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. neuter nominative & accusative, weak declension. – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. These declensions are very similar. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. Only few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, kupė – compartment (in a train), coupe, are not subject to declension … Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. dat. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. Plural: Lithuanian declension is quite sophisticated in a way similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. (Vocative) – form for invite, call. nom. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Fifth declension. How to use this chart. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are: Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms: Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. Once you're done with Lithuanian Cases, you might want to check the rest of our Lithuanian lessons here: Learn Lithuanian. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position. Among variant declensional forms are known: sg. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. The a-paradigm is masculine. (Locative) – asks queston Kur? When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. nom., sg. All these rules are covered in our lessons. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. ), Kilmininkas Several forms have not only a pronoun added, but have different respective to non-pronominal adjectives ending syllable – longer sound retained: feminine singular nominative -o-ji, masculine singular instrumental and plural accusative, respectively -uo-ju, -uos-ius (the respective forms of a pronoun jis are juo, juos) and one with ogonek, feminine singular instrumental: -ą-ja, -ią-ja; or has a sound -m- not doubled: masculine singular dative and locative, masculine plural dative, feminine plural dative and instrumental, for example -a-jam, -a-jame, -ies-iems, not non-existing -am-jam, -ame-jame, -iems-iems. The main cases are: Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. In Lithuanian declension (changing of case) of noun and adjectives is very important … Correct! Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. ends in -as, sg. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. nom. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. How to say write spell Lithuanian numbers correctly. There’s also an alternate version with the vocative included and the forms in a slightly different order (nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative). Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. Derivation easily become nouns, in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural genitive is palatalized ( -ių ) dančio... Other cases than the singular and the third type, petys, peties, the! 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Form coincides with the o-paradigm regularly used only in two words: pati 'wife and.
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