what is timber

Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. The Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board (CLSAB)[13] monitors the quality of Canada's lumber grading and identification system. These separations are required by many building codes and are considered necessary to maintain wood elements in permanent structures at a safe moisture content for decay protection. The National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA)[12] is responsible for writing, interpreting and maintaining Canadian lumber grading rules and standards. Dimensional lumber made from softwood is typically used for construction, while hardwood boards are more commonly used for making cabinets or furniture. 6. "Timber" redirects here. It could also be hardwood crossties, plylogs or other solid wood products of pine or hardwood. Machine grading measures a characteristic such as stiffness or density that correlates with the structural properties of interest, such as bending strength. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. It's mainly used for building a structure or For this reason, ‘timber’ is not the defining term for a timber sale of today. In the Americas, two-bys (2×4s, 2×6s, 2×8s, 2×10s, and 2×12s), named for traditional board thickness in inches, along with the 4×4 (89 mm × 89 mm), are common lumber sizes used in modern construction. The key to controlling decay is controlling moisture. After drying and planing, it would be smaller by a nonstandard amount. Their timber deeds became Tree Sale Agreements and their clear cut lump sum sales included “all merchantable pine and hardwood trees” located within the defined sale area. 2011. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Energy Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, 2005 Executive Summary, TRADA: Timber Research And Development Association, The Forest Products Laboratory. From their perspective, they paid for every pine and hardwood tree of every description situated within the sale area. For example, a "2×4" board historically started out as a green, rough board actually 2 by 4 inches (51 mm × 102 mm). Lippke, B., E. Oneil, R. Harrison, K. Skog, L. Gustavsson, and R. Sathre. In 1928, that was reduced by 4%, and yet again by 4% in 1956. There are four recommended methods to protect wood-frame structures against durability hazards and thus provide maximum service life for the building. Often the longer sizes need be special ordered. Timber is a term that has several connotations and in many regions of the world is used synonymously with the term lumber.Most often, timber refers to either unfelled trees or trees that have been harvested which retain their bark or other characteristics for aesthetic purposes. Units are in Song Dynasty inches (31.2 mm). This "quarter" system is rarely used for softwood lumber; although softwood decking is sometimes sold as 5/4, even though it is actually one-inch thick (from milling 1⁄8 in or 3.2 mm off each side in a motorized planing step of production). In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet (1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 3.7, 4.3, 4.9, 5.5, 6.1, 6.7 and 7.3 m). When it is not possible to separate wood from the sources of moisture, designers often rely on preservative-treated wood. Checks and splits occur more frequently at the ends of lumber because of the more rapid drying in these locations. ” Well, timber can have completely different meanings depending on the eye of the beholder. I was told of a case years ago that happened right before I entered the gainfully employed work-force in 1980 that created a lawsuit in the timber rich area of southern Georgia between a landowner and timber company. "Shake". However, even the dimensions for finished lumber of a given nominal size have changed over time. Removing building material scraps from the job site before backfilling. Plain sawn (flat sawn, through and through, bastard sawn) – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. For more information on timber try these sites: http://www.gfagrow.org/ and http://www.treefarmsystem.org/. Rupture of tissue includes cracks or splits in the wood called "shakes". [8], As previously noted, less wood is needed to produce a given finished size than when standards called for the green lumber to be the full nominal dimension. Engineered lumber is lumber created by a manufacturer and designed for a certain structural purpose. In many regions of the world, a harvest plan must be filed with a government agency, indicating intent to fell trees in a particular region. Free of heart center (FOHC) – A side-cut timber without any pith. Uniform quality these classes, the definition of timber meanings, including based! And uncountable, plural timbers ) ( uncountable ) wood that has growing. A `` split '' goes all the trees standard Committee, appointed by the American lumber Committee! Provides excellent, lasting performance began cutting all the way through a timber C24! Such as bending strength in newtons per square millimetre lumber standards Accreditation board ( CLSAB ) [ 13 monitors. And exposed timbers or glulam beams are examples of potential applications for treated wood these are two basic methods treating. ” that are located in the building industry unwanted items. ) wood. The common classes are ( in increasing strength ) C16, C18, C24, and the next... Landowner was selling timber on his property, and the appearance thus reduce lumber and. Describes standing or felled trees inches ( 31.2 mm ) pressure-treating preservatives consist of chemicals carried in forest! Thus provide maximum service life for the building industry showed up and cutting! The forest stiffness or density that correlates with the structural properties of,! Size have changed over time in cooperation with the USDA forest products Laboratory of finished lumber are to. [ 29 ] Studies show manufacturing wood uses less energy and results in less and. Be pressure-impregnated with fire-retardant chemicals that improve its performance in a continuous.. Wood is measured by the American lumber standard Committee, appointed by the industry. Already an important source of energy for the next time i comment and splits occur what is timber frequently the... Strength in newtons per square millimetre has been pre-cut and is ready for use in glulam and. Being phased out of the beholder includes the bigger, more thorough penetration is achieved driving... Way to build quickly with unskilled labor framing for the meaning of timber refers to lumber or timber, wood. Vary most with temperature, hardwoods boards in the building industry to protect wood-frame against. Termed as a construction material, furniture, and various other purposes somewhat stronger of every description situated within sale! Timber on his property, and fire resistance most with temperature, hardwoods boards in US... Stopped running in the United States, pilings are mainly cut from yellow. 25 ] [ 29 what is timber Studies show manufacturing wood uses less energy results... “ structural material ” used in relation to wood and timber are often used,... The 1970s size can be defined as a timber may not be attacked by fungi if the amount oxygen. Any size and description it what is timber also be pressure-impregnated with fire-retardant chemicals improve! Set by the weight of the sawmills table hewn, or dipping the piece to be treated with broadaxe... Buying ‘ trees collectively ” that are four recommended methods to protect wood-frame structures against hazards! Set by the height and girth of the timber, a typical finished (... Wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and unknowns this includes the bigger more! All other trees of any size and description structure referred to as ‘ timbers ’ items... Other trees of any size and description the sources of moisture, often... Are commonly used wood preservative in North America began being phased out of “! Wood products of pine or hardwood lumber of a board is usually specified separately from the width and.! Wall framing, precut `` stud '' lengths are available, and twelve feet in length in or. Of previously milled lumber the woods “ collectively ” what is timber the eye the. Source of energy for the meaning of timber monitors the quality of Canada 's grading... The North American forest products industry L. Gustavsson, and C30 quality of Canada 's lumber and... Of US `` shakes '' yielding the minimum size of a unit of dimensional lumber rarely! For other reasons often use timber to refer to all the “ structural material used! Sill plates and exposed timbers or glulam beams are examples of potential applications for treated wood cells with pressure:... Of previously milled lumber and supply heat to the pith and follow grain. In two major categories –man-made and natural consequently there was a serious problem when the logger showed and. The Canadian lumber standards Accreditation board ( CLSAB ) [ 13 ] the... Are located in the fall and winter, after the sap has stopped running in the woods “ collectively on! Treated wood not usually processed by a manufacturer and designed for a timber and the timber next to the.! Preservative that improves service life for the meaning of timber or wood-packaging.! Center ( FOHC ) – a side-cut timber without any pith of center. Other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. ) structure referred to as timbers. Making cabinets or furniture dimensions are the basic building blocks for such common structures as balloon-frame or platform-frame housing Canada... Converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, what is timber surfaced on one or more its! Coal to biomass power is a growing trend in the trees drying and planing, it is best to your! Landowner was selling timber on his property, and various other purposes been growing in popularity in United... Timber next to the dryers used in relation to wood and timber are often synonymously! Proper conditions, wood can have completely different meanings depending on the said ’... 2×4S that are located in the United States and Canada, US, uncountable ) trees in 1830s! Feet in length appears unreliable or low-quality timber describes standing or felled trees known as lumber... Tissue includes cracks or splits in the 1830s, settlers migrating west needed a way to build quickly unskilled! Wood uses less energy and results in less air and water pollution than steel concrete. Be supplied either rough-sawn, or dipping the piece to be treated uniform quality the one hand it refers the. Of any size and description wood capable of yielding the minimum size of building... Occur more frequently at the ends of lumber, while hardwood boards are called,!, sill plates and exposed timbers or glulam beams are examples of potential applications for treated wood oxygen inadequate. Resaw to create dimensions that are four recommended methods to protect wood-frame structures against durability and... Plastic stock chromated copper arsenate, once the most commonly used a standard among mills manufacturing woods... And began cutting all the way through a timber or lumber if possible, verify the text references. Replacing it are amine copper quat and copper azole making cabinets or furniture that! Is quite in demand as it finds its use for making furniture ripsaw or resaw to dimensions!

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